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World Heritage Convention

In India , there are five Natural World Heritage Sites, namely, Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park, Keoladeo Wildlife Sanctuary, Sundarban National Park and Nandadevi National Park.

Biosphere Reserves

UNESCO's MAB (Man and the Biosphere) program started in 1971 includes:

  • Conservation
  • Development
  • Logistic Support
  • Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and Coastal marine systems which are nationally/ internationally recognised and designed to promote and demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature
List of National Biosphere Reserves in India
  • Nilgiri ( 3 states ) - also a Global Biosphere Reserve
  • Nanda Devi ( Uttaranchal)
  • Nokrek ( Meghalaya )
  • The Great Nicobar
  • Gulf of Mannar ( Tamil Nadu ) - also a Global Biosphere Reserve
  • Manas ( Assam )
  • Sundarban - also a Global Biosphere Reserve
  • Simlipal
  • Dibru-Saikhowa ( Assam )
  • Dihang-dibang (Arunachal Pradesh)
  • Pachmarhi ( M.P.)
  • Khangchendzonga ( Sikkim )
Main Goals
  • Conservation of natural and cultural diversity
  • In-situ conservation of Biodiversity of natural and semi-natural Eco-systems
  • Sustainable Economic Development of human population living within and around Biosphere Reserve
  • Facilitate long-term Ecological studies, Environmental education and Training, and Research and Monitoring related to local, national and global issues of conservation and sustainable development
Zoning of Biosphere Reserve

Core Zone Securely

Protected Site for conserving Biological Diversity and undertaking non-destructive research and other low-impact uses like Education etc

Buffer Zone

Usually surrounding or adjoining the Core Zone, and is used for activities compatible with sound ecological practices

Transition Area

May contain a variety of agricultural activities, settlements and other uses and in which local communities, management agencies, scientists, NGOs and other stakeholders work together to manage and develop the Area's resources

Ramsar Convention

(Sustainable use of wetland for benefit of Eco-system people)

  • 1263 Sites all over the Globe
  • In India , there are 25 Ramsar Sites, and another 6 are in pipeline ( including Sundarban)
  • Wetlands are classified into:
      1. Inland /Freshwater
      2. Coastal/Salt water
      3. Artificial Wetlands

What is a Wetland ?

        • Wetlands are areas of marsh, peatland or water,
        • natural or artificial,
        • permanent or temporary,
        • with static or flowing water,
        • Fresh, brackish or salt ,
        • Includes marine water of depth, at low tides, less than six metres

Functions of Wetland :

        • Flood control
        • Ground water recharging
        • Biodiversity conservation
        • Conservation of Wetland flora and fauna
        • Biomass export
        • Water transport
        • Nutrient retention
        • Micro-climate stabilisation
        • Sediment retention and erosion control
        • Eco- tourism



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