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Constitution of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve


As part of the Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB), accepted in the general conference of the UNESCO in 1970, the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India adopted the National MAB programme and declared the entire 9630 sq. km. Of Sundarban as the Sundarban Biosphere Reserve in 1989 through a notification to establish a formal mechanism for coordinating and integrating diverse activities of conservation, research and training for creating a better situation of harmony between man and environment. The Sundarbans, due to its unique ecosystem, has also been declared as a World Heritage site in 1989. Sundarban Biosphere Reserve has also been included as the second Biosphere Reserve from India , other than Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, in the global network of Biosphere Reserves, in November 2001.

Area and Extent

Administrative boundary of the Sundarban is spread over two districts i.e. North 24-Parganas and South 24-Parganas, covering 19 blocks as under:

  • South 24 Parganas - Sagar, Namkhana, Kakdwip, Patharpratima, Kultali, Mathurapur-I,II, Jaynagar-I,II, Canning-I,II, Basanti, Gosaba
  • North 24 Parganas - Hingalganj, Hasnabad, Haroa, Sandeskhali - I,II, Minakhan

The extent of mangrove Reserve Forests in Indian Sundarban is around 4260 sq km, out of which 55% is under land vegetation cover and balance 45% is under water body/ inter-tidal zone. Nearly 40% of the Reserve Forest area has been brought under Protected Area (PA) network, as follows:-

•  Area of Sundarban National Park = 1330 sq km

•  Area of Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary = 362 sq km

•  Area of Lothian Wildlife Sanctuary = 38 sq km

•  Area of Haliday Wildlife Sanctuary = 6 sq km

Sundarban Tiger Reserve

Sundarban Tiger Reserve was created by a Govt Order dated 23.12.1973, under the "Project Tiger" scheme of MOEF, GOI. It is part of the Sundarban Biosphere Reserve and has a total Reserve Forest area of 2585 sq km. Within the Reserve Forests, 1330 sq km has been notified as Sundarban National Park which also forms the Core area of the Reserve. Balance area forms the Buffer Zone and Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary is part of this zone. Sundarban National Park had been declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1987.



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